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Early internet technology was developed in the 1960s, and rudimentary versions were expanding in the early 1980s. The development of semi-conductors allowed for further enhancement. The internet as we know it (the World Wide Web) was developed by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 and was fully commercialised by 1995.

The Global Positioning System, provided by US-developed and owned satellites, helps the world to navigate on a daily basis.

One of the most overlooked yet important breakthroughs in human history is the contraceptive pill, allowing woman to take a more active role in their reproductive health.

The post World War II order gave way to the Cold War, a contest for global influence between Russia and the US. A hallmark of this rivalry was the Space Race. While Russia achieved many milestones first (first successful launch, first man in orbit, first spacewalk), but the the race culminated in America’s Apollo 11 expedition and man’s first moonwalk in 1969.

The Green Revolution saw the introduction of mechanisation and chemical fertilisers in agriculture, greatly increasing yields but creating unsustainable practices and damaging the environment.

The second World War prompted the first and hopefully last use of two atomic bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan.

Sir Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin, the first mould-derived antibiotic molecule. This was the silver bullet to many previously incurable bacterial infections.

The first World War saw the collapse of the European Empires of Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia and the Ottoman. The British and French kingdoms were severely weakened. This splintering created the current geography of Europe.

After the Industrial Revolution, scientific and technological progress saw rapid advancements. Electricity was integrated into infrastructure in the late 19th century. Shortly after came the telephone and the internal combustion engine, along with airplanes and the radio in the early 20th century. These would all revolutionise production (but also warfare).

The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain. Factories, mechanisation, mass production and the steam engine would change the world, but lead to an acceleration in environmental damage.

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