Qingdao is one of the major Chinese cities at risk of being partly submerged due to sea level rise. Its population count is above 6 million people, and as an important seaport, naval base and industrial centre, extreme flooding could cost hundreds of millions (in USD).
Earth.Org has mapped what such flooding could look like by 2100 if no action is taken.
Climate change is slowly but surely changing the natural world, increasing the frequency, intensity, and risk of extreme weather events and natural disasters. One of the most tangible threats to human society is sea level rise, as it shifts the odds of high storm surges and menaces the 600 million people living low-lying coastal areas worldwide.
Of these 600 million, an estimated 93 million are in China. Over 6 million of these live in Qingdao, an important seaport, naval base and industrial centre that has undergone impressive economic growth in the past twenty years. It was ranked one of six “golden cities” by the World Bank in 2006 and its GDP has been steadily rising at an average pace of 16% since then.
Due to the USD $600 billion of assets exposed to coastal flooding by 2070, officials have recognized the need to invest in an adaptation plan. The city has collaborated with a local university to develop a strategy combining natural and human measures to reduce risk by 80%. No detailed description of the plan has been released, which casts some doubt on these claims, but there is no doubt that authorities are aware of the danger.
Earth.Org has modelled the flooding Qingdao could experience by 2100 if no action is taken.
Global mean sea level is projected to rise by 2m at the end of this century. However, in order to determine local sea level rise (SLR), one has to take into account local coastal flood levels which could be 2.8m above Mean Higher-High Water (MHHW) at extreme forecasts. These local levels bring variability to the projected SLR from 1m to 6.5m (eg. Rio vs Kolkata).
The SLR scenarios used in this study are based on the forecasts from Climate Central – Coastal Risk Screening Tool with the following parameters:
- Sea level Projection Source
- Coastal Flood Level
- Pollution Scenario
Sea level Projection Source:
From two highly cited journals by Kopp et al., estimating SLR mainly due to ocean thermal expansion and ice melt. The mid-range scenario projected 0.5-1.2m of SLR based on different representative concentration pathways (RCP) defined by the IPCC. While the pessimistic scenario added more mechanisms of ice-sheet melting, estimating SLR at 1m-2.5m in 2100, with a projection of 10m SLR at 2300.
More frequent coastal flooding is a direct impact of sea-level rise. Based on the Global tides and surge reanalysis by Muis et al., (2016), it is estimated that the extreme coastal water level could be from 0.2 – 2.8m over the mean level. While in extreme cases like China and the Netherlands it could experience 5-10m of extreme sea levels. Here, the coastal local flood level is added on top of the projected SLR.
Allows choosing the RCP, the greenhouse gas concentration trajectory defined by the IPCC. The mild level is based on RCP4.5, of 2°C temperature rise; while the Extreme level is based on RCP 8.5, of 4°C temperature rise.
Applies to the baseline SLR, defined in the “Sea level projection” section, upon which we add flooding. “Mild” refers to the mid-range scenario of 0.5-1.2m, and “extreme” to the pessimistic scenario of 1-2.5m. We used the high-end value of each scenario (mild = 1m; extreme = 2.5m).
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Kulp, Scott A., and Benjamin H. Strauss. “New elevation data triple estimates of global vulnerability to sea-level rise and coastal flooding.” Nature communications 10.1 (2019): 1-12.
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Kopp, R. E., DeConto, R. M., Bader, D. A., Hay, C. C., Horton, R. M., Kulp, S., Oppenheimer, M., Pollard, D. & Strauss, B. H. (2017). Evolving Understanding of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Physics and Ambiguity in Probabilistic Sea-Level Projections. Earth’s Future, 5(12), 1217–1233.
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Kulp, S. A. & Strauss, B. H. (2019). New Elevation Data Triple Estimates of Global Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Flooding. Nature Communications, 10(1), 4844. Retrieved June 21, 2020, from http://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-12808-z
Muis, S., Verlaan, M., Winsemius, H. C., Aerts, J. C. J. H. & Ward, P. J. (2016). A Global Reanalysis of Storm Surges and Extreme Sea Levels. Nature Communications, 7.