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Boris Johnson has pledged that the UK will cut greenhouse gas emissions by 68% below 1990 levels by 2030, an increase on the current target of about 57%. It is hoped that this will encourage other countries to raise their climate targets as well, as the UK prepares to co-host a virtual summit of world leaders on the climate later this month. 

Johnson said, “We have proven we can reduce our emissions and create hundreds of thousands of jobs in the process. We are taking the lead with an ambitious new target to reduce our emissions by 2030, faster than any major economy and the UK is urging world leaders to bring forward their own ambitious plans to cut emissions and set net zero [carbon] targets.”

What is Happening?

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It is understood that ministers are preparing more policies to supplement the 10-point plan and the NDC, including an energy white paper before the end of the year that will set out some new measures.

Other major world economies are also expected to come forward with updated NDCs. EU leaders will meet next week to decide on a potential 55% emissions cut by 2030, and the US president-elect, Joe Biden, is planning to rejoin the Paris agreement when he takes office. China has set a goal of reaching peak emissions by 2030 but has not yet submitted a formal plan to the UN, while both Japan and South Korea have pledged to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050. 

Featured image by: Flickr 

Greenhouse gases, particularly CO2, methane and nitrous oxide, have reached record levels despite COVID-19- induced lockdowns, according to the UN’s World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

The WMO Greenhouse Gas Bulletin shows that atmospheric CO2 is now 50% higher than in 1750 before the Industrial Revolution, hitting record levels not seen in up to 5 million years. CO2 traps two-thirds of the heat retained on the Earth’s surface by greenhouse gases and this warming effect has increased by 45% since 1990. Methane is responsible for 17% of this heating effect and its concentration is now 2.5 times pre-industrial levels. Additionally, nitrous oxide is now 23% higher than in 1750.

What is Happening?

The results show that not enough is being done to curb the increase in greenhouse gases. Emissions need to fall by half by 2030 to keep global heating to 1.5 degrees Celsius. 

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Petteri Taalas, the WMO secretary-general, says, “The lockdown-related fall in emissions is just a tiny blip on the long-term graph. We need a sustained flattening of the curve. We breached the global [annual] threshold of 400ppm in 2015 and, just four years later, we have crossed 410ppm. Such a rate of increase has never been seen in the history of our records.”

He continues, “CO2 remains in the atmosphere for centuries. The last time the Earth experienced a comparable concentration was 3m-5m years ago, when the temperature was 2-3C warmer and sea level was 10-20 metres higher than now. But there weren’t 7.7 billion [human] inhabitants.”

While many countries have pledged to either drastically reduce their emissions or have committed to carbon neutrality- a welcome move- so much more needs to be done to stave off the worst effects of climate change, such as extreme weather events and droughts or floods.

Featured image by: Flickr

ReconAfrica, a Canadian petroleum exploration company, announced in August 2020 that it is planning to embark on oil and gas drilling projects in a protected area in Africa that supplies the Okavango Delta region in Botswana with water, threatening endangered wildlife and communities living in the area. 

ReconAfrica has acquired the rights for oil drilling in more than 35 000 sq km of north-east Namibia and north-west Botswana, along the banks of the Okavango River in the Delta region in the newly-proclaimed Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area. The area is larger than Belgium and ReconAfrica says that it could hold up to 31 billion barrels of crude oil- more than the US’ consumption in four years if consumption remained the same as in 2019. Fracking also seems to be a part of the company’s plans. 

While the US is the largest oil and gas producer in the world, it has created massive problems for the environment; hydraulic fracturing has caused poor air and water quality, community health and safety concerns, long-term economic issues and environmental crises like habitat loss. 

Along with the conservation area, the license covers 11 separate community nature concessions areas, one World Heritage site and part of the five-country Kaza Park- the largest protected area in southern Africa. It also includes the last refuge of the San people with a future drill site near the World Heritage site of Tsodilo Hills in Botswana.

Chris Brown, CEO of the Namibian Chamber of the Environment, says that he is not aware of the project and that any project such as this should have gone through environmental review and permitting processes. He says, “There needs to be public consultation. We monitor all the adverts that come out in the newspaper, and we monitor all the adverts that come out around EIAs (Environmental Impact Assessments) and we haven’t picked this up at all.” 

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According to the National Geographic, experts who have reviewed the Namibian EIAs for the test wells have pointed to “serious problems” with the way they were carried out. They pointed to a lack of physical assessments of fauna and flora and to the possible effects on local communities and other people, on archaeological sites, and on groundwater and surface water. They said that the assessment, consisting only of desktop studies without any fieldwork, is not sufficient to justify the proposed drilling. 

Environmental Concern

The area is home to Africa’s largest migrating elephant herd as well as endangered African painted dogs, sable antelope and rare flora. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), ReconAfrica’s license covers the territories of seven endangered animal species, including the grey crowned crane and the African wild dog, and four critically endangered animals, including the black rhinoceros and white-backed vulture. It’s also home to 20 other species listed as “vulnerable,” including Temminck’s pangolin and the martial eagle. It is also an economic powerhouse, bringing in around USD$32 million a year in sustainable tourism revenue. 

Temminck’s Pangolin (Source: Wikimedia Commons).

More importantly, the Okavango River, in the north of the potential fracking and oil drilling zone, is the sole provider of water to the Okavango Delta, Botswana’s most visited tourist destination. The area supports more than a million people with food, employment and fresh water.

Infrastructure for oil and gas drilling involves the construction of roads, pipelines and buildings that “could all negatively affect important animal habitat, migratory pathways and biodiversity,” according to the WWF. Fracking is of particular concern because it requires large amounts of water and can cause earthquakes, pollute water, release greenhouse gases and lead to cancer and other birth defects. For wildlife, fracking can poison the food chain, destroy habitat and cause mass die-offs of fish and other aquatic species. 

However, Namibia’s Ministry of Mines and Energy is emphasising the potential positive effects, saying that the “the socioeconomic impacts of exploratory drilling will result in the employment of locals” and many other benefits, such as new water wells for communities near the proposed drill sites. The Namibian government holds a 10% stake in ReconAfrica’s oil and gas development.

There are mixed messages being communicated within this project, proving that either the Namibian government is being lied to by ReconAfrica or it doesn’t know the full scope of the project. The government says that it has not given the company permission to frack, however ReconAfrica says that it’s entitled to a 25-year production license

Implications for Communities and Wildlife

The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that it takes about 1.5 million gallons of water to frack a single oil and gas well; ReconAfrica says that it ultimately hopes to drill hundreds of wells in the Kavango Basin. 

This has serious implications for the food security of the country. According to the UN, Namibia cannot feed itself; its farms support about 70% of its people, and the lands under ReconAfrica’s drilling license have more than 600 working farms, some irrigated with water from the Okavango River. Drilling here could further impact this fragile food supply. 

The company plans to begin “test” drilling as soon as this or next month.

Featured image by: Flickr

According to a report from BloombergNEF (BNEF), global greenhouse gas emissions likely hit their peak in 2019. Emissions from energy use have dropped 8% this year due to COVID-19-related lockdowns- a decline equal to two-and-a half years of energy sector emissions. While emissions may not rise to this level again even as the global economy rebounds from the pandemic, they still need to fall dramatically to avoid catastrophic warming. 

The report- called “New Energy Outlook”- finds that emissions will rise gradually until 2027 as the economy recovers, but will then decline 0.7% year-to-year until 2050. Wind and solar energy, along with battery storage, will supply 56% of the world’s electricity demand by 2050, with some countries generating as much as 80% of demand. 

What Does This Mean?

To mitigate warming, investments of as much as USD$130 trillion in clean energy and green hydrogen technology between now and 2050 will be needed.

The report found that along with a peak in global emissions, oil demand will peak in 2035 and fall 0.7% each year to 2050. Electric cars will become price competitive with internal combustion vehicles before the mid-2020s, and then will overtake them, further cutting into oil demand. Coal demand peaked in 2018 and will continue to fall. It will make up 18% of electricity generation by mid-century, down from 26% today. However, natural gas will continue to grow, increasing 0.5% per year. 

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BNEF CEO, Jon Moore, says, “The next 10 years will be crucial for the energy transition. There are three key things that we will need to see: accelerated deployment of wind and PV, faster consumer uptake in electric vehicles, small-scale renewables and low-carbon heating technology, such as heat pumps, and scaled-up development and deployment of zero-carbon fuels.” 

According to a new study, emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) are increasing at a faster rate than any other greenhouse gas, mainly due to a rise in nitrogen fertiliser application for food production. Already, these emissions have surpassed projections by the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC). 

Nitrous oxide is 300 times more potent than carbon dioxide and it also destroys the stratospheric ozone layer, which protects the planet from most of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation. N2O remains in the atmosphere for an average of 114 years and it creates a positive climate feedback in which the climate crisis increases N2O emissions from soils. While the gas is found naturally in the atmosphere, industrial processes, fuel combustion and agriculture are some of the human activities responsible for N2O emissions. 

The research, led by scientists at Auburn University, found that nitrous oxide has risen 20% from pre-industrial levels, from 270 parts per billion to 331. Previous research had failed to take into account natural sources of N2O or failed to gather enough data from South American and African nations. 

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The report found that the planet’s growing demand for food and livestock feed is the dominant factor in the N2O increase. Farmers are growing increasingly reliant on synthetic nitrogen fertiliser to boost productivity, especially those in emerging economies in Asia, Africa and South America, who are the largest contributors to global nitrous oxide emissions. 

While modern synthetic nitrogen fertilisers allow for billions of people to be fed, as much as 58% of nitrogen that is applied to crops escapes from farms and pollutes the environment. Additionally, nitrogen runoff into nearby water bodies can cause eutrophication, which causes algal blooms that kill marine life and cause “dead zones.” To address this, farmers could use “green manure” using legumes that “fix” much of their own nitrogen from the atmosphere, that farmers can grow and then till into the soil, or they can adopt precision farming equipment that helps them apply just the right amount of fertiliser to their crops. As temperatures rise and food supply looks increasingly threatened, it is not feasible to completely cut out the use of synthetic fertilisers but we need to adopt farming practices that at least reduce nitrous oxide emissions. 

Joseph Canadell, a climate scientist at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Group (CSIRO) and co-author of the study, says, “This new analysis calls for a full-scale rethink in the ways we use and abuse nitrogen fertilisers globally.”

Featured image by: Flickr

The polar regions of the Earth are known as areas of harsh weather extremes. However, in the current warming climate, we are seeing record breaking temperature spikes, rapid sea ice loss and increased rainfall compared to snow accumulation in Arctic regions, that seemingly far surpass weather variations of the recent past. In fact, a recently published study has determined that the Arctic is shifting to a new and different climate, one characterised less by ice and snow and more by open water and rain.

The study, published in Nature Climate Change in September, utilised five climate models to investigate the potential emergence of a new Arctic climate in three different factors across ocean and land: sea ice, air temperature and precipitation phase, i.e. snow vs rain. By identifying the emergence of a new climate, which has previously been seen in terrestrial systems and subpolar latitudes, it is possible to gain insight into future weather extremes, which have great importance for both the environment and the people who live there. The three factors investigated by this study are not only important indicators of a new climate but are also highly interconnected. 

Arctic temperatures are rising at a rate of nearly twice the global average due to an effect known as Arctic amplification. Arctic amplification is largely attributed to the loss of sea ice as the ice plays two key roles in regulating near-surface air temperature. First, it provides an albedo feedback. Simply put, the light colour of the sea ice, compared to the Arctic ocean beneath it, reflects a majority of incoming solar radiation back into the atmosphere, preventing it from being absorbed and warming the environment. Second, its thickness provides insulation between the warmer ocean below and the cooler air above. Therefore, as temperatures rise and sea ice melts, more of the Arctic ocean will be exposed meaning more solar radiation will be absorbed by the darker ocean, causing the ocean temperatures to rise. Further, with sea ice thinning, or being lost completely, insulation provided by the sea ice decreases, resulting in increased air temperature due to its closer proximity to a warmer ocean. As air temperatures rise, the phase of precipitation changes in concert leading to rainfall replacing snowfall and an extension of the rainy season. 

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In order to classify the emergence of a new climate for any of these three factors, researchers needed to characterise twentieth century climate and compare it to observed and simulated twenty-first century climate to determine if the extreme changes occurring are a result of climate change, and thus a new climate, or if they fall within natural internal variability. While the problem seems straightforward, coming to a solution is anything but. Observational data in the Arctic is sparse and is sourced largely from the modern satellite era, beginning in 1979, which itself was a period of drastic change in the Arctic. Further, limited records also suggest a period of warming and sea ice loss during the 1950’s, making it extremely difficult to characterise twentieth century Arctic climate. Yet, using a multi-model, the study was able to robustly characterise the past Arctic climate and simulate the twenty-first century climate using the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario put forward by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, commonly referred to as the ‘worst case scenario’ or ‘business as usual’ projection for greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere. 

The study concludes that the Arctic is already transitioning from a cryosphere-dominated system, with the average extent of sea ice in September, the time of year when sea ice extent is at its minimum, having decreased by 31% from the beginning of the satellite era (1979 – 1988). Further, they report a new Arctic climate of sea ice as having already emerged, beginning in the late twentieth century to the beginning of this century. 

Using the RCP 8.5 scenario, all five models simulate a completely ice-free summer by 2100 with air temperatures exceeding those of lower latitudes. Daily fall-winter temperatures are also projected to increase by 16 – 28 °C for most of the Arctic Ocean. Lastly, rainfall will replace snowfall with an extension of the rainy season by 2 – 4 months. This new Arctic climate and the predicted changes set to accompany it will take a heavy toll on both the ecosystem and people who live and rely on these Arctic environments. 

It is important to remember, however, that these simulations are based on the ‘worst case scenario’ of greenhouse gas concentrations, with the study noting that a reduction in greenhouse gases could postpone or even completely prevent the emergence of future new Arctic climates. This is important as the study estimates that a new climate of air temperature and precipitation phase change will emerge in the first to middle half of this century and in the middle half of this century respectively.  It is therefore still feasible that this future does not need to become our new reality. With efforts and plans made now, we can all decrease our carbon footprint and ensure that the ‘worst case scenario’ is not the path we choose to follow. 

Featured image by: Flickr

Google and Facebook have both pledged to become carbon neutral, following in the footsteps of Apple and Microsoft. 

Google is going one step further than Microsoft (who pledged to go carbon negative by 2030, meaning that it will account for all the carbon that it has ever produced and add enough mitigation to counteract its effect). In 2007, Google pledged to be carbon neutral and has made an investment to match all of the electricity it uses with renewable energy. The company says that it has purchased enough carbon offsets to bring its carbon footprint dating back to the company’s founding

In a blog post, the CEO of Google and Alphabet, Sundar Pichai, says, “The science is clear: the world must act now if we’re going to avert the worst consequences of climate change. We are committed to doing our part. Sustainability has been a core value for us since Larry and Sergey founded Google two decades ago.”

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Additionally, the company will become the first to commit to run entirely on carbon-free energy in all of its data centres globally. 

To achieve this, Google will pair wind and solar energy and will use its artificial intelligence to predict its future electricity demands. 

Climate activists praised the announcement. Elizabeth Jardim, Senior Corporate Campaigner at Greenpeace USA, says, “Today’s announcement, combined with Google’s promise in May to no longer create artificial intelligence solutions for upstream oil and gas exploration, shows that Google takes its role in combating climate change seriously.”

Meanwhile, in a separate announcement from Google, Facebook has announced that it will achieve net-zero carbon emissions and become carbon neutral by 2030. Director of Sustainability, Edward Palmieri, says, ““Facebook’s global operations will achieve net-zero carbon emissions and be 100 percent supported by renewable energy. We are also setting an ambitious goal to reach net-zero emissions for our value chain in 2030.” 

Both companies’ announcements follow similar announcements from Apple and Microsoft. In January, Microsoft pledged to become carbon neutral by 2030, and to remove all of its historical emissions by 2050. In July, Apple announced its own plans to become carbon neutral by 2030. This encompasses not only its entire supply chain, but also the lifecycle of all its products, including the electricity consumed in their use.

Featured image by: Wikimedia Commons

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expected in the coming days to lift controls on the release of methane that is emitted from leaks and flares in oil and gas wells, in what the Trump administration says is needed to free the oil and gas industry from ‘crippling regulations’. 

The EPA Methane Rollback

The new EPA rule eliminates federal requirements that oil and gas companies must install technology to detect and fix methane leaks from wells, pipelines and storage sites. 

Andrew Wheeler, the head of the EPA, made public a rollback draft of the methane rule, saying at the time that it ‘removes unnecessary and duplicative regulatory burdens from the oil and gas industry’.

The move comes at a time when companies are suffering from decreasing prices and falling demand driven by the COVID-19-related economic slowdown. However, this revised rule has been planned for more than a year. 

Environmentalists have condemned the move, calling it another blow by Trump to the planet, following dozens of reversals on rules meant to protect the planet from warming further, including the US withdrawing from the Paris Agreement. 

In April, the EPA weakened rules on the release of toxic chemicals from coal-fired power plants, loosened curbs on tailpipe pollution and chose not to strengthen a regulation on industrial soot emissions that have been linked to respiratory diseases. 

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In July, Trump weakened the National Environmental Policy Act, limiting public review of federal infrastructure projects to speed up the permitting process for freeways, power plants and pipelines. 

However, this and other regulatory changes put forth by the Trump administration in the latter half of 2020 could be undone in the first half of 2021 if Joe Biden wins the White House and Democrats take control of the Senate. This is because of a rule that gives lawmakers 60 legislative days to overturn major new regulations issued by federal agencies. In the early days of the Trump administration, the procedure was used to undo 14 Obama-era rules. 

Oil and gas companies have had mixed responses to the move. Some major companies have spoken out against the weakening of methane regulations, but smaller oil companies are expected to applaud the rule as a relief when many are struggling to survive. 

While methane stays in the atmosphere for a shorter period of time, it has 80 times the heat-trapping power of carbon dioxide in the first 20 years in the atmosphere. It currently makes up about 10% of greenhouse gas emissions in the US. A large portion of this comes from the oil and gas industry, although other sources include agriculture. 

BP has announced that it is taking its business in a new direction, slashing its oil and gas production by 40%, and increasing its annual investment in low-carbon technology to USD$5billion by 2030, ten times more than its current level.

BP’s Alternative Energy Ventures

As part of its plan, the company says that it will stop its oil and gas exploration in new countries and will reduce its current production and carbon emissions by one-third. Production of oil and gas will be cut by at least one million barrels a day by 2030. 

The company said on August 4, “BP today introduces a new strategy that will reshape its business as it pivots from being an international oil company focused on producing resources to an integrated energy company focused on delivering solutions for customers.”

It adds, “This coming decade is critical for the world in the fight against climate change, and to drive the necessary change in global energy systems will require action from everyone.”

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How much did BP invest in renewables?

The investment in BP low-carbon projects will jump to $3bn by 2025 and $5bn by 2030, with major investments planned in bioenergy, hydrogen and carbon capture and storage. The company says that it also plans to ‘advise cities on ‘power packages’ with renewables, back-up batteries and financing’ and offer up to 70 000 electric vehicle recharging stations at its retail gas stations, up from the current level of 7 500. 

However, while BP will expand its portfolio of clean energy technologies, it will continue to invest most of its money in oil and gas production up to 2025. Despite this, Chief Executive Bernard Looney says that “we believe our new strategy provides a comprehensive and coherent approach to turn our net zero ambition into action.”

Greenpeace UK described the announcement as a ‘necessary and encouraging start’, but adds that BP ‘must go further’.

The second quarter saw BP reporting a loss of $16.8 billion due to reduced demand for oil. The company has sold its petrochemical unit and has cut 10 000 jobs as it struggles from a crash in oil prices due to the COVID-19 pandemic that shut factories, grounded planes and kept motorists off the road. The price of Brent crude fell to record lows in April. It has since recovered, but remains 35% down this year. 

The company expects demand for fossil fuels to fall by 75% by 2050 if the increase in global temperatures is limited to 1.5 degrees Celsius, or by 50% if warming is less than 2 degrees. 

Featured image by: Mike Mozart

As pushing climate action and creating environmental and social impact becomes mainstream thought, so is the awareness that the future of jobs, as well as skills, is turning a shade of green. The US Department of Labor defines green jobs as those that produce goods and services that benefit our environment and natural resources, and where the employee is involved to make the production and delivery processes more environment friendly, use fewer resources and promote a circular economy. More broadly, a green economy is not just one that replaces extractive activities with regenerative options, but is also one that pushes and sustains economic, gender and racial justice.

A transition to a green economy has the potential to create millions of sustainability jobs. A growing consciousness about sustainability, climate change and carbon footprint as an offshoot of unbridled consumption along with emerging contours of lifestyles in the post-COVID era will push the drive towards green jobs. This growth is likely to more than compensate for the job losses in traditional industries. According to the ILO’s World Employment and Social Outlook report, adoption of sustainable practices in energy and energy efficiency could create 24 million new jobs globally by 2030, while cutting 6 million jobs in fossil fuel industries. Degradation of the environment and ecosystem apart, heat stress and rising temperatures will impact our jobs and working hours, especially in the agriculture sector.

But this transition cannot occur smoothly unless our workforce, existing as well as new entrants, acquires the necessary green skills these green jobs would require. The green economy will not be a reality without integrating green skills into countries’ National Determined Contribution (NDC) targets. A 2019 article by ILO’s Senior Specialist Olga Strietska-Ilina highlights this disconnect as two-thirds of the NDC’s recognise the importance of capacity development, but less than 40% include skills training to support their implementation.

In terms of the sectors that would emerge as a hotbed for green jobs, the 2019 State of Jobs in India report by Grameen Foundation India analyses the potential of green jobs across water, housing, farming, clean energy, waste management, mobility, hospitality, health and other sectors. It identifies the potential of over 3 million green jobs to be created in the country by 2021, although this estimation was made before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.
In terms of the types of enterprises where such opportunities may arise, it may include green-solutions focused companies (say Germany’s Bio-lutions setting up a plant in India to make cutlery from agri-residue), large companies implementing sustainability strategies into their business models (apart from conglomerates like Pepsi or Tatas, even mid-sized companies in India like Arvind Mills are recycling water to reduce freshwater consumption) or companies that provide niche, green support-services. Even traditional artisan segments are addressing the need for sustainability, which unlocks the scope for green jobs. For instance, a block-printing artisan enterprise in Rajasthan using eco-friendly colours enables the unused wastewater from its production process to be utilised for farming.

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The Importance of Green Skills

The green transition will require sector-specific knowledge and technology to support decision-making, implementation and maintenance of the modified production processes, revamping of communication, analytical and management styles, and changes to how we invest. Mapping the occupational needs and then investing in the relevant green skills training are vital. It will also require legal recognition and protection; for instance, the informal sector working in waste picking/recycling are often bereft from identity cards, a basic need for social protection. While skills training programmes are being pushed, there is a need to reorient the investments into skills-training by both the public and private sector to ensure it closes the skills gap for the green economy. There is a need to build marketplaces for sustainable products, like a dedicated market for recycled plastic products or organic foods, which would incentivise the development and job creation in those sectors.

While funding may be a constraint given that many of the green sectors do not yet generate the cash-flow to capture the attention of fund managers, blended finance or outcome-based funding mechanisms may be an opportune way to start.

One must also note that the definition of what comprises a green job and skills is still evolving and not uniform or consistent. Even people working in this space give varying answers to the same question. This implies that the employees must develop a skill-set that is adaptable to different aspects of the field.

With the growing awareness about the environment and social issues amongst the world’s young millennials, interest in green jobs will undoubtedly accelerate as the youth seek to focus their education and careers on areas that they are more passionate about. This will add to the demand pull. At the same time, the supply push to green jobs and skills must be backed by steady regulations, government incentives and the mainstreaming of the green development agenda across employment and skills. It would also require the guidance and forecasting of green skill areas to facilitate relevant vocational and tertiary education programmes.

Ultimately, the potential size of the green economy is enormous, because each sector holds ample scope to become greener. A mind-shift change is visible in many companies and consumers, and this must accelerate. Innovations within existing green sectors are also heartening to see, like floating solar projects that overcome the constraint of onerous land acquisition rules for utility-scale solar projects. But while the sky is the limit, it would be prudent to focus on a few sectors as a low-hanging fruit and ramp up the initiatives towards skills-training for those sectors first. Without the necessary skills, any discourse on green jobs and its realisation in any sector of our economy will remain a pipedream!

Co-written by Prabhat Labh, CEO, Grameen Foundation India and Sourajit Aiyer, Consultant, South Asia Fast Track Sustainability Communications

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