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As the world races to develop a vaccine for COVID-19, conservationists are concerned that at least half a million sharks could be killed for their liver oil once one is found. 

According to Science Times, shark liver oil is primarily made of squalene, which helps control sharks’ buoyancy in deep water. The substance is also found in plants, humans and other animals and is used as a moisturising agent in cosmetics. Medically, squalene is used in vaccines as an “adjuvant,” meaning that it can elicit a stronger immune response, making them more effective. 

Squalene has an “excellent safety record,” according to the US’ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and has been used in flu vaccines since 1997. It could also reduce the amount of vaccine needed per person, according to local news reports. 

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Shark Allies, a group fighting against the overfishing of sharks, says that there are five COVID-19 vaccine candidates using squalene. One of these is called MF59, which contains around 9.75mg of squalene per dose. The group estimates that if MF59 is used to treat everyone in the world, nearly 250 000 sharks will be killed. If two doses are needed- which is likely, according to experts- nearly half a million sharks will die. 

One British company currently using shark squalene in flu vaccines plans to manufacture a billion doses of the substance for potential use in COVID-19 vaccines by May 2021. About 3 000 sharks are killed to extract a tonne of squalene.

The group is petitioning the US Food and Drug Administration, Europe, China and all vaccine developers to remove the substance or find an alternative that doesn’t require sharks. The group also notes that there are vaccines in development that do not require squalene and have encouraged these instead

Plant-based oils can be harvested from yeast, wheat germ, sugarcane and olive oil, but these are more expensive and difficult to extract than shark-based squalene. 

Shark populations are vulnerable because they reproduce in low numbers and mature slowly; already, the squalene industry kills around 3 million sharks every year. Great whites, hammerheads and whale sharks are most often targeted for their livers. Deep-sea sharks are particularly vulnerable because their livers contain more squalene than other species as it helps them adapt to their environment.

Featured image by: Flickr

Shark fin soup is said to be the food of emperors, but a new study finds this “luxury” dish may not be so favorable to the person who eats it. A team of international researchers discovered that shark fin soup contains high levels of mercury and other heavy metals- in most cases, much higher than what’s legally considered safe for human consumption.

Shark fin soup has a long history in Chinese culture. Emperor Taizu of the Northern Song, who ruled China between 960 and 976, apparently ate shark fin soup to display his power and wealth. From that point on, the dish became a status symbol and much-sought-after food item in China, served throughout the Song dynasty (960-1279), the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), and the Qing Dynasty (1644-1912). While it briefly disappeared from the menu when the Chinese Communist Party assumed power in 1949, it reemerged in the 1980s as a dish to signify prosperity and good fortune.

Even today, shark fin soup continues to be a popular food choice in China and Hong Kong, and there’s even a growing demand in other Asian countries like Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia. In Hong Kong, it’s frequently served as a delicacy at weddings and New Year’s banquets, but you can also find “everyday” versions of the soup at most restaurants.

To feed the insatiable demand for shark fin soup, about 100 million sharks are killed every year, according to one study. While it’s legal to trade the fins of many shark species, other sharks are protected under CITES Appendix II, which only allows trade when special permits have been granted. But CITES regulations have not managed to stop the many illegal parts of the global shark fin trade.

While previous studies have investigated mercury levels in the fins of wild sharks, this study looked at mercury levels in shark fins that have been processed and prepared for sale in China and Hong Kong.

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shark fin soup metals
Shark fin soup. A new study shows that shark fin soup contains levels of mercury not safe for human consumption (Source: Mongabay via Wikipedia Commons).

“The processing sharks fins undergo to be ready to be used in shark fin soup is very secretive and involves different chemicals that might affect mercury concentrations,” Laura García Barcia, a doctoral candidate at Florida International University and the study’s lead author, told Mongabay. “We wanted to assess the mercury present in the final product that goes straight to the consumer. Only one study before us had looked at mercury in processed shark fins but unfortunately, they did not have the resources to analyze the fins at the species level. Ours is the first study on processed shark fins that gives information on mercury levels by species.”

The team took 267 samples of shark fin trimmings — pieces of cartilage, muscle and skin cut off from the main part of a shark’s fin — from nine of the most common shark species that end up in soup bowls, which they distinguished through DNA testing. These included blue sharks (Prionace glauca), silky sharks (Carcharhinus falciformis), scalloped hammerheads (Sphyrna lewini), smooth hammerheads (Sphyrna zygaena), bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas), shortfin mako sharks (Isurus oxyrinchus), great hammerheads (Sphyrna mokarran), oceanic whitetips (Carcharhinus longimanus), and several species of blacktip sharks, which they grouped together in what they called the “blacktip complex.” Using nitric acid and a spectrometer, they tested the fin trimmings for mercury and methyl-mercury, an organic, highly toxic form of mercury.

Most shark fins turned out to have five to 10 times more mercury the legal maximum amount of 0.5 parts per million, as indicated by the Hong Kong government’s Centre for Food Safety (CFS), which is similar to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States. The highest amount was found in great hammerheads, which had mercury levels of 55.52 parts per million.

“Hammerheads are very large sharks and they are also at the top of the trophic chain,” García Barcia said. “They are sharks that can eat very large prey, and the larger prey you eat, the higher the mercury is. If we had actually looked at great white shark fins, you would have probably seen very high mercury levels also, but for us, the highest predator in our study was the great hammerhead.”

In Hong Kong, great hammerhead fins are considered to be premium products, and sold at prices equivalent to $500 to $1,000 per kilo, according to Demian Chapman, a shark researcher and one of the study’s authors.

Hammerheads “represent the most expensive and most sought after fins in the trade,” Chapman told Mongabay. “Therefore, the most expensive fins on the market also carry the highest risk of mercury toxicity. Banquet hosts often purchase these premium fins or order to honor their guests, which is ironic in light of their particular toxicity.”

Mercury enters the ocean, and into sharks’ bodies, in a variety of ways. It can come from natural sources like volcanoes, and from human activities such as gold mining, inadequate waste management, and the burning of coal, wood and oil, García Barcia said.

“Mercury in surface ocean waters has roughly tripled in the last century,” García Barcia said in an email. “Methyl-mercury biomagnifies through the food web, resulting in top predators accumulating high concentrations of this pollutant.”

“The species in our study are all large-bodied, top predators so we expected to find high amounts of mercury in the tissue samples,” she added. “Mercury concentrations depend on a long list of factors including the diet of the shark, its region of origin and the size at which it was caught.”

Right now, little is known about what mercury levels do to sharks themselves, but some studies show negative impacts of mercury on certain fish species.

“Fish can have problems with swimming performance, it affects their reproduction, the survival of the offspring is greatly reduced,” García Barcia told Mongabay. “But for now, we actually don’t know what the effects are in sharks. We think they are very similar [to other fish species], but sharks have been around for 400 million years, so maybe they just have a way to excrete it.”

While a single bowl of shark fin soup probably wouldn’t seriously affect your health, García Barcia said that prolonged consumption of shark fin soup, and other mercury-rich foods like tuna and swordfish, could lead to brain damage and changes in the central nervous system. If pregnant women consume too much mercury, their babies are more at risk of neurocognitive deficits and neuromotor disabilities.

The Hong Kong CFS website carries information about mercury in shark products, but it’s limited. For instance, there’s a warning that a shark’s tail skin contains mercury levels of 4.16 parts per million, but another page says that “mercury levels in all shark fin samples tested by the Centre for Food Safety were satisfactory” and not above the legal levels.

Gary Stokes, director of operations at Oceans Asia, a Hong Kong-based NGO, has been investigating the shark trade for 20 years, and he said that most consumers don’t realize the health risks attached to shark fins.

“The average person has no idea of the high mercury levels in shark fins,” Stokes told Mongabay. “In fact, very few have any idea of where the dish in front of them came from at all. The barbaric slaughter, the illegal vessel it was likely caught by, most crewed by slaves. Many don’t even connect that it came from an actual shark.”

Besides being high in heavy metals, shark fins tend to be processed with peroxide or bleach, Stokes said. Then they’re laid out to dry on dirty streets, sidewalks, back alleys and rooftops.

“Shark fin traders are laughing and making fools of those who dine on this ‘luxury dish,’” Stokes said. “They know the filthy path these fins have taken to the final ‘fancy bowl of soup.’ In a germaphobic Hong Kong, it baffles me how clueless some people can be. They walk past these fins in the gutter, covered in flies and bacteria, then enter a restaurant and pay US$100 a bowl because they saw a beautiful picture of a golden bowl of shark fin soup.”

Chapman says he believes that once consumers have accurate information about mercury levels in shark fins, demand for the product may go down. “Not everybody’s worried about threatened species, but everybody’s worried about their health,” he said.

The team recently sent the results from the study to Hong Kong’s CFS, although they’re still waiting on a response.

“My expectation is that the government will ramp up its own testing for things that they see in the market right now,” Chapman said. “I believe that they would find the same results that we found in our study, and my expectation is that they will start issuing advisories against eating shark fin soup.”

García Barcia also said the team is working with NGOs in Hong Kong to help spread the word about mercury levels in shark fins.

“Previous campaigns … have focused on the importance of sharks in the ecosystems or how shark populations are declining worldwide,” García Barcia said. “That’s a message that has resonated within younger audiences in Hong Kong, but not necessarily with older people that actually have the purchasing power to drive the demand for shark fin soup. So we think that a health-based approach could actually help resonate with people that … care about their own personal health, and we hope that helps further reduce the demand.”

Featured image by: Nicholas Wang

This article was originally published on Mongabay, written by Elizabeth Claire Alberts , and is republished here as part of an editorial partnership with Earth.Org. 

Shark finning poses a significant threat to the ocean’s ecosystem and levels of carbon dioxide production in marine environments. Endangered shark species are still under threat despite being protected by shark finning bans and conservation plans. A recent massive shark fin seizure in Hong Kong demonstrates the severity of the city’s role in the global shark finning trade, despite a stern ban in place. What does the future of the trade look like, and what can be done to stop it? 

Shark Finning Statistics

Humans kill more than 100 million sharks worldwide each year, including tens of millions of sharks killed for their fins. As apex predators (top predators), sharks help mediate healthy ocean ecosystems and assist in maintaining a balanced biodiversity through intimidating potential prey, preventing overpopulation of prey species, and preventing prey species from dominating a limited resource. Sharks’ roles in managing the marine’s environment is therefore essential; without them the infrastructure and balance of the ocean’s ecosystem would be threatened. 

Largest Shark Fin Seizure in Recorded Hong Kong History 

Hong Kong customs officials recently seized 26 tons of dried shark fins extracted from an estimated 38 500 endangered sharks inside two containers shipped from Ecuador. The Customs and Excise Department’s marine enforcement group in Hong Kong estimated the fins at US$1.1 million, which were removed largely from thresher and silk sharks- both protected and endangered species.

According to Ken Chan Hon-ki, endangered species protection officer of the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, the fins were removed from an estimated 31 000 thresher sharks and 7 500 silky sharks. It was further noted that the fins were to be delivered to restaurants and shops for local consumption, however the ongoing investigation has yet to confirm this definitively. 

While selling and consuming shark fins is not illegal in Hong Kong, it is regulated and requires a license. Importing an endangered species without a license is punishable by up to 10 years in jail and a HK$10 million (US$1.3 million) fine.

In 2018, police officers seized a total of 641 kilograms of shark fins worth over US$65 780, making this year’s seizure significantly larger in comparison. The rise in seizures demonstrates the severity of the role that Hong Kong has in the global shark finning trade, and highlights the ongoing participation in the harvesting and trading of shark fins despite the threat it poses to the species’ and the ocean’s ecosystem. 

According to a superintendent officer reporting to South China Morning Post, the rise in seizures demonstrates an ‘efficient system of inspecting and detecting illegal shark fin activity’, potentially due to intelligence collaborations with mainland China and other countries. Moreover, the increase in seizures may not be a result of a rise in demand. Instead, Gloria Lai Pui-yin, senior conservation officer at The World Wildlife Fund in Hong Kong (WWF-HK) pointed out that it could be an attempt of exploiting the COVID-19 pandemic as government officials are preoccupied combating the virus.

Lai mentioned that with people dining out less due to social distancing customs, a local increase in shark fin demand is highly improbable. WWF-HK strongly encourages companies and restaurants in Hong Kong and beyond to pledge against shark finning and to stop selling shark fin dishes with the aim of decreasing the demand. However, she acknowledges that the demand may rise again after social distancing rules are relaxed. 

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The Trade’s Link to the Climate Crisis

A 2016 study investigating the impact of shark finning on the climate crisis demonstrated that the removal of sharks from ecosystems may increase carbon dioxide production in the ocean. Removing the apex predator from its natural habitat can increase the biomass of prey species, like smaller fish and zooplankton, resulting in higher net carbon production by the system. The researchers noted that their results support previous findings established by similar studies. Additionally, predators affect the feeding habits of prey species such that their removal can result in a decrease in ocean carbon storage. Recent research has explained this may occur as predators are able to control populations or behaviours of other organisms, which might prevent potential carbon deposit build up.  

Essentially, the researchers postulated that shark finning, in addition to fishing in general, contributes to the escalation of the climate crisis. Their study, along with others, further demonstrates the need to ban harmful activities such as shark finning, and highlights an area of research worth expanding and building on.    

Shark Finning Bans – How to stop shark finning?

The UN developed the International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks in an attempt to conserve and manage shark populations, as well as to encourage their sustainable use. Though shark legislation varies greatly between countries, many governments have implemented a partial or full ban on shark finning – providing a glimpse of hope for the global ban of shark finning. 

Canada, the first country to ban the export and import of shark fins, sets an example for other countries to follow suit. In 1994, Canada enforced a ban on shark finning with the exception of importing fins, which was legal up until the summer of 2019. In 2018 alone, Canada imported more than 148 000 kilograms of shark fins for local consumption, making it the largest importer of shark fins outside of East Asia. Since the recent full ban, concern around the detrimental effects of shark finning has been raised among the Canadian public, prompting a decrease in shark fin-related activities. 

In contrast, some countries’ legislation regarding shark finning contain loopholes that subsequently enable illegal activity. Indonesia, among others, passed a ban on fishing of endangered shark species in 2012. According to Indonesian law, the fishing of authorised shark species is allowed given that the entire body is brought back to shore for full utilisation. The act of shark finning – harvesting the shark fin and dumping the body back into the ocean – is illegal. Despite such regulations in place, the demand for local shark fin consumption remains high as the market is still being entertained, enabling deceptive behaviour and illegal trading to satisfy monetary motivations

What Next for the Shark Finning Trade?

It is evident that the extermination of shark species has a cascading effect throughout the ocean’s ecosystems that leads to catastrophic ecological and environmental consequences. While recognising the importance of sharks paves the way to greater awareness of the matter, more decisive action must be taken by governments to curb the shark finning trade altogether and punishments must be effective in deterring would-be syndicates. There should also be global cooperation to better monitor and control illegal activities. 

With the continued attempts of raising awareness, implementing legislation, and educating the public on its detrimental effects, the trajectory of shark finning will hopefully decrease in the near future. However, this action must come from the top. 

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