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New research has found that one of the world’s biggest gliding mammals, the greater glider in Australia, is actually three separate species. While this discovery marks an increase in Australia’s already-rich biodiversity, it creates new challenges for protecting these animals which are under pressure from rising temperatures, bushfires and land-clearing.

Researchers from The Australian National University, James Cook University, the University of Canberra and CSIRO worked together to run genetic tests from tissue samples taken from gliders in parts of Queensland, Victoria and from museum specimens. The results were published in the journal Scientific Reports

It was known that greater gliders were different sizes and colours in different places along the eastern coast of Australia but there were disagreements about their classification and there wasn’t sufficient proof that the animals might be several species, according to the researchers. 

Dr Kara Youngentob, a wildlife ecologist at ANU and co-author of the study, says, “We found that they were profoundly different.” 

These marsupials are about the size of a cat, are nocturnal, and eat only eucalyptus leaves. They launch themselves from trees and spread out a membrane attached to their elbows that allows them to glide as far as 100 metres. 

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The new research finds that greater gliders, with the Latin name Petauroides volans, are three distinct species that now include Petauroides minor and Petauroides armillatus. Splitting the one species into three now means assumptions that the greater glider lives from Victoria to Townsville in northeastern Queensland will have to be rethought.

Professor Andrew Krockenburger of James Cook University and one of the researchers, says, “Australia’s biodiversity just got a lot richer. It’s not every day that new mammals are confirmed, let alone two new mammals.”

The researchers believe that the discovery highlights a “lack of information” about the two new greater glider species, which could affect future conservation actions and management legislation. The study says, “A lack of knowledge about the genetic structure of species across their range can result in an inability to properly manage and protect species from extinction. This is especially true in the wake of a natural disaster, when wildlife management decisions need to be made quickly and under challenging circumstances.” 

However, greater gliders are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change as well as human activities, like land clearing. They were listed as ‘vulnerable’ by the federal government even before last summer’s devastating bushfires; an early assessment of the impact of Australia’s Black Summer bushfires of 2019 and 2020 suggested that about 29% of greater glider habitat overlapped with the fires. Greater gliders need older trees with hollows in which they can hide during the day. 

The researchers say that greater glider numbers have fallen sharply in recent decades due to tree clearing, bushfires and global warming that is raising night-time temperatures to levels difficult for the marsupials to tolerate. Australia has the highest rate of species loss of any area in the world; it is therefore crucial to devise conservation strategies that take this into account. 

Featured image by: Flickr 

A royal commission into the 2019-2020 bushfires in Australia issued its final report on Friday, fingering human-caused climate change as the culprit and describing the country’s disaster outlook as “alarming.” The report also looked at natural disasters in general, showing a dire warning of a future which will be shaped by climate change and saying that “what was unprecedented is now our future.”

The report makes 80 recommendations, including enacting new legislation to allow the prime minister to declare a state of emergency. While none of the recommendations outline ways to lower greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change, the report acknowledges that human-caused global warming will play a central role in future disasters.

In a statement, Greg Mullins, former commissioner of Fire and Rescue NSW and founder of Emergency Leaders for Climate Action, says, “The Bushfire Royal Commission has laid out the facts in no uncertain terms: climate change drove the Black Summer bushfires in Australia, and climate change is pushing us into a future of unprecedented bushfire severity.”

It says, “consecutive and compounding natural disasters will place increasing stress on existing emergency management arrangements. As the events of the 2019-2020 bushfire season show, what was unprecedented is now our future.”

The commission noted that extreme weather has become more frequent and intense because of climate change and called for a more proactive approach to environmental disasters.

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The commission also urged the Australian government to stop funding new coal or gas projects, and transition rapidly to renewable energy. The government has been unwilling to adopt these measures. In September, the New South Wales Government was given approval to build a proposed 850 coal seam gas wells as part of a controversial AUD$3.6 billion development that environmentalists labelled “disastrous.” A week earlier, Prime Minister Scott Morrison also refused to commit to a target of net zero carbon emissions by 2050. 

The federal government announced that they had accepted all of the commission’s recommendations, but did not comment on whether- or to what extent- it would implement them. There have been about 240 natural disaster inquiries in Australia over the years and “while many recommendations have been faithfully implemented and have led to significant improvements, others have not.”

“Our recommendations should be implemented, some as a matter of urgency,” the commission adds. “Several will take time to achieve the intended outcome, but meaningful steps should be taken now towards timely implementation. Each recommendation would improve our national natural disaster arrangements, but taken as a whole, they will have the greatest effect.”

During the “Black Summer” bushfires, over 24 million hectares were burnt. 33 people died and extensive smoke coverage across much of eastern Australia may have caused many more deaths. Over 3 000 homes were destroyed. Estimates of the national financial impacts are over AUD$10 billion. Nearly three billion animals were killed or displaced and many threatened species and other ecological communities were extensively harmed. 

Featured image by: Wikimedia Commons

Koalas may become extinct by 2050 without urgent government intervention, according to a report published by the Parliament of New South Wales (NSW). The report, a year-long inquiry into one of the country’s most beloved native species, presents a ‘dark and depressing snapshot’ of the situation for koalas in Australia’s southeastern state. 

How Many Koalas are Left?

The report says that even prior to the most recent  bushfires in 2019/2020, koalas in NSW were already endangered species. Population numbers were estimated to be 36 000, but these were considered to be ‘outdated and unreliable’. 

Of the 1 billion animals killed by the catastrophic bushfires, an estimated 6 382 koalas perished, 15% of the marsupial’s population in NSW alone. More than 12 million acres of land burned across NSW, and close to 45 million acres across Australia. Conservation and environmental groups say that the fires resulted in the loss of more than 80% of koala habitats, pushing the animals into ‘functional extinction’. 

Josey Sharrad, an International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) wildlife campaigner, says that koalas are particularly vulnerable to bushfires as they are slow moving, reproduce slowly and often only give birth to one joey at a time and live in eucalyptus trees that burn quickly and intensely. She added that when fires sweep through their homes, they often don’t have time to escape, particularly in intense crown fires that rage through the treetops where they live. 

The combination of deforestation, the climate crisis and ongoing droughts in the region continue to threaten koalas’ unique habitat, the eucalyptus forests in the southeastern and eastern parts of the continent on which they rely for both habitat and food

The exact numbers of koala populations across Australia are unknown, but the IFAW report puts the number of koalas in NSW at about 42 500.

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A ‘Koala Crisis’ 

Philip Spark, a wildlife ecologist, worries about a koala crisis that is being overlooked due to a lack of awareness and warning: “with the trees dying and the streams drying there is a recipe for disaster. Koalas are really on the brink of not surviving.” It is therefore of great importance that urgent action is taken in order to protect the koalas in Australia, and to conserve the environment in which they inhabit, before irreversible damage prevails. 

Conservation Recommendations 

Cate Faehrmann, Greens MLC and committee chair of the NSW parliament, says, “the strategies and policies currently in place to protect the koala aren’t working, like the NSW Koala Strategy, which fails in ensuring enough koala habitat is protected for the different koala populations across the state.”

Members of the NSW legislative council made 42 recommendations to prevent koalas from becoming extinct, including conserving koala habitats, establishing more detailed approaches to monitoring koala numbers, and calling on the government to allot additional resources and funds with the aim of restoring koala habitats across Australia. 

A report published by the IPCC says that by 2050, once-in-a-century events are expected to occur every year with 50 degree Celsius heatwaves in the next 20 years. The researchers stress that the climate crisis will not affect the quality and abundance of their food and habitat, but will also compound the severity of other impacts, such as droughts and bushfires. If we do not correct our invasive relationship with nature, koalas are just one of the animals that will be extinct by 2050. 

Bushfires tearing through southeastern Australia have killed at least 25 people and burnt over 14.8 million acres of land (in comparison, 2.2 million acres of land were burnt during the 2019 Amazon rainforest fires). It is feared that a billion animals have perished, nearly 2000 homes have been burnt down and thousands took to beaches for refuge. The smoke from the Australia bushfires is so dense that glaciers in New Zealand have turned brown from ash and smoke. Adding to the chaos is Australia’s own government, who continue to deny the link between the fires and the climate crisis and intend to use an accounting loophole to reduce its emissions reduction efforts.  

While Australia bushfires are a regular ecological patterns in the country, this summer’s exceptionally high temperatures and strong winds have spread the fires further into the east coast. 

Environmental Factors of the Australia Bushfires

Australia experienced the hottest and driest year in its recorded history in 2019, which was a major contributing factor to the devastating wildfires that continue to rage, the country’s meteorology bureau said. 

Dry conditions limit the variety of vegetation cover, which makes areas more vulnerable to fire. Australia’s outback is covered with xeric shrubland and savanna grassland; grass fires can spread as quickly as 14 miles per hour, twice the speed of forest fires. 

Data released by the climate monitoring body show Australia’s mean temperature in 2019 was 1.52°C higher than average, making it the warmest year since records began in 1910; January 2019 was the warmest month Australia has ever recorded. Rainfall was 40% below average, its lowest level since 1900.

As a result of changing weather patterns in recent years, the fire season has extended by a month in some locations, and fires have become more severe, the bureau said. 

Graph of December mean temperature anomalies (differences from average) for northern Australia from 2010-2018 (Source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology).

The main factor prolonging the summer heatwave is a positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), a climate phenomenon where sea surface temperatures are warmer in the western Indian Ocean and cooler in the east. The cooler eastern Indian Ocean reduces rain in Southeast Asia and Australia, causing droughts and high temperatures inland. Another factor is the unusual Southern Annular Mode (SAM) this summer. SAM is the westerly wind that encircles the southern ocean from west to east. A negative SAM means the westerly wind is unusually north and it creates an anticyclone, driving wind from the inland to the east, fanning the fire to more densely populated areas on the coast.

Once bushfires start, they create their own weather patterns. Hot smoke rises into the atmosphere and forms pyrocumulonimbus clouds, which can cause thunderstorms and ‘dry lightning’ (lightning without rain). 

The relatively flat terrain in Australia is conducive to the development of pyrocumulonimbus clouds and contributes to the quick spread of fires. 

The burning forests not only add to carbon emissions, but they also remove carbon sinks which will take decades to grow back; 350 million metric tons of CO2 have been released from the fires since September. 

Human Factors: People Started the Australian Fires?

According to the Australian Institute of Criminology, more bushfires are started by people than natural causes; fires were deliberately lit around Queensland in December 2019, destroying dozens of homes and forcing hundreds to flee. Fires that become uncontrollable bushfires are mostly in rural areas where there is plenty of fuel available such as grass and bushes. 

Bushfires tend to occur when fuel loads in eucalyptus forests have dried out, usually following periods of low rainfall; however, fuels can be managed to prevent fires. 

The National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) of Australia carries out hazard reduction in high-risk areas in Australia through prescribed burning of trees and grasses close to developments. This includes fuel breaks, also known as fire breaks, where trees are cleared to prevent the spread of a fire. This is also done routinely around power lines. 

Indigenous Australians have been traditionally managing the land for 50 000 years using prescribed burning. By knowing what areas to burn, when and how, areas of expansive grassland on good soils were created and the subsequent variety of trees and grassland meant that the highly combustible eucalyptus forests were unlikely to create intense bushfires. 

However colonisation meant that this land management gave way as fire was feared rather than used as a way to manage the lands, resulting in grass plains becoming thick scrub and bushland that is prone to bushfires. 

Cuts in firefighters?  

Claims from the The Public Service Association that the NSW government had ‘cut fire-trained positions in national parks by 35%’ have been disproved, however there are less rangers than in 2011- down to 201 from 261.

There are 1 044 national parks and wildlife service staff qualified to fight fires, down from 1 349 in 2013 (however environment minister Matthew Kean says that this number included trained firefighters as well as incident response teams with other skills, making it an inappropriate comparison).  

The number of firefighters in the NSW Rural Fire Service appears to be static– the number of salaried staff has remained roughly the same as in 2011. However, the firefighting force in national parks is less highly qualified than a few years ago, and there are fewer rangers and more field officers. 

The Fire Brigade Employees’ Union says that maintaining the current number of firefighters will not be enough. Hotter and drier conditions, and the rising number of days on which there are higher fire danger ratings, have reduced the time in which agencies can carry out prescribed burning. 

Conditions in winter or early spring, when hazard-reduction burning is usually carried out, are becoming less favourable for safely lighting fires. Other factors hindering this planned burning are: the challenges of administering fire management programs across different areas, legal liability considerations and risks to crews and communities. 

As the climate crisis worsens and the bushfire season is expected to continue to extend, the amount spent on both equipment and personnel needs to be expanded and increased. 

Government response

The blazes have sparked a debate in Australia over whether man-made climate change is to blame. Prime Minister Scott Morrison and his government have been accused of downplaying the severity of the fires and the role played by climate change, and prioritising the interest of the country’s coal industry. 

The government is standing firm on its position that there is no direct link between the climate crisis and the Australia bushfires despite public anger and warnings from scientists. 

Stepping up efforts to cut emissions would harm the economy, the government argues, especially if it hurts Australia’s exports of coal and gas. 

“In most countries it isn’t ­acceptable to pursue emission ­reduction policies that add substantially to the cost of living, ­destroy jobs, reduce incomes and impede growth,” Angus Taylor, Australian Energy Minister, said, without detailing exactly how cutting emissions would raise the cost of living. 

The catastrophic fires come as Morisson’s government last year stated its plans to use a carbon accounting loophole from the Kyoto Protocol agreement to fulfil its Paris commitments, saying that the trick would limit the pressure the agreement would place on Australia’s coal and gas exporting industries. 

This has angered the international community; Costa Rica Minister of Environment and Energy Carlos Manuel Rodríguez called out Australia, Brazil and the US by name during a press conference. He asserted that proposals like Australia’s to use old allowances towards a new pledge would threaten the integrity of the agreement and put the 1.5°C goal further out of reach. 

However, Morrison and his government insist that Australia has the absolute right as a sovereign state to design its nationally determined contribution (NDC) to Paris as it sees fits and he rejects claims that it’s unambitious.

“Australia is meeting and beating our emissions reduction targets,” he told reporters when asked about the climate talks at a press conference in December.

However, a ranking of 61 major economies last month shows Australia has the least protective climate policies; Australia is the world’s largest exporter of coal briquettes, exporting 7% of the world’s fossil fuel CO2 potential. The country releases 1.3% of the world’s greenhouse gases, while its population accounts for 0.3% of the planet’s inhabitants.

Under the Paris Agreement, Australia has committed to reduce its emissions by 26-28% below 2005 levels by 2030; it is currently on track for a 7% reduction. The country is considering whether to count what it portrays as ‘overachievement’ over the first and second Kyoto commitment periods (2008-2012 and 2013-2020 respectively) toward its NDC for 2030 under the Paris Agreement. 

However, this technical ‘overachievement’ comes from the fact that Australia had substantial domestic deforestation emissions in 1990, which artificially raised its baseline 24% above an average year. Additionally, Australia allowed itself an 8% increase in its emissions in the first Kyoto commitment period compared to 1990 and a 0.5% reduction for the second; Australia is now claiming ‘overachieving’ after choosing less ambitious targets than other countries. 

If Australia succeeds in using these carryover credits, it would reduce the country’s 2030 reduction target from 26% to 13.9% below 2005 emission levels using 2019 projections. It’s unclear how the emissions from the current spate of fires will fit into this accounting. 

This loophole isn’t popular, but it’s unclear how it can be stopped. However, while there are no legal ramifications for underperforming on a Paris commitment, a report says that there is currently no legal basis for the ‘carryover’ of pre-2021 units from the Kyoto Protocol for use under the Paris Agreement, as they are separate treaties.

Public Opinion

According to a 2019 Lowy Institute poll, 64% of Australians have identified climate change as the most critical threat to Australia’s ‘vital interests’. 

The poll indicates significant demographic differences between Australians. While younger Australians are deeply concerned about climate change and its implications, older Australians are less so. 76% of Australians aged 18-44 agreed that ‘climate change is a serious and pressing problem and we should begin taking steps now even if this involves significant costs’. In contrast, 49% of those over 45 agreed with this statement. 

Besides bushfires, other extreme weather events that occurred in Australia in 2019 include unusually late tropical cyclones in May, severe storms, large areas of flooding and widespread droughts. 

The Garnaut Climate Change Review from 2008 warned that as result of climate change, ‘fire seasons will start earlier, end slightly later, and generally be more intense. This effect increases over time, but should be directly observable by 2020’. 

Professor Bob Hill, director of the Environment Institute at the University of Adelaide, says that the only long-term solution to worsening Australia bushfires is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. “This is a global catastrophe that has now hit Australia hard. There is no reason to believe that this is an isolated event,” he says. 

Jointly written by Deena Robinson and Felix Leung, a postdoctoral researcher and a scientist at the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Featured image by: Ninian Reid

The humanitarian and ecological devastation caused by bushfire spreading across Australia is the new reality of the climate crisis. Fuelled by an extremely dry summer and soaring temperatures, these fires should be a wake up call for the rest of the world. 

Over the past few weeks, international news outlets and social media have picked up on the Australian bushfire crisis, projecting images of immense devastation and destruction, despite the fires starting in September 2019. Bushfires are common phenomena in Australia, occurring every year during the hotter months, which are triggered either naturally or from human activities. These bushfires are normally well controlled by fire fighting and management services across the country.

However, as a result of temperatures as high as 48.9°C and widespread lack of rainfall, the normally controllable fires have spread at an unprecedented rate covering a huge area. Since late 2019, the fires have burned over 60,000 sq km, about the same size as Lithuania’s entire land area. Some reports have described flames reaching as high as 70 metres, which is higher than the Sydney Opera House. 

An issue arising from fires of this size is that they can create their own weather systems. ‘Pyrocumulus clouds’ are produced when smoke rises and cools, mixing with water vapour to create dense clouds. In unstable conditions, these pyrocumulus clouds have the ability to induce thunderstorms, causing downbursts of winds reaching up to 170 mph (270 km/h),  ‘rain bombs’ (sudden localised torrential rain), and lightning that can start new fires in other areas, which have been reported by the Bureau of Meteorology in Victoria state. 

The damage from the Australia bushfire is colossal. Collectively, these fires are reported to have emitted over half of Australia’s annual CO2 emissions, which will have knock-on effects for air quality, water pollution, public and ecological health for the country in the months to come, and for countries close by. New Zealand has already been affected, with large clouds of smoke descending nearly 2 000 km away to cities such as Auckland. Professor Chris Dickman of The University of Sydney estimates that at the time of writing, around 480 million animals have been killed by fires in New South Wales alone, one of the worst affected states, since the start of local bushfires in September 2019. This is a loss that is difficult to comprehend: taken as the quantity of loss, this is comparable to more than two times the entire human population of Brazil, or approximately one third of China’s population, dying in four months from fire, smoke inhalation, dehydration or starvation. Current reports indicate that 25 people have died in the fires, and many are still missing or unaccounted for. Thousands of homes have been destroyed across the country, and tens of thousands of people have been forced to evacuate their homes and communities under blood-red and black skies. 

Australia Bushfire: Cause

Despite announcing aid efforts, Prime Minister, Scott Morrison is seen as a climate change denier lacking in leadership. This has knock-on effects for Australia’s climate and environmental policies. A lack of accountability for climate change, increasing CO2 emissions in the country, and investment into fossil fuel, mean that future political actions to prevent fires like this happening again could miss the essential link about the cause of the fires.

The relationship between climate change and Australia’s rising temperatures is unmistakable. Currently, average global temperatures are at 1°C above pre-industrial levels as a result of global CO2 emissions. Globally, the past decade (2010-2019) has been the hottest decade on record, pushing local and regional temperatures to new record highs. The past few years have seen widespread fires in California (USA), Siberia (Russia), Indonesia, Brazil, and sub-Saharan Africa, yet the Australia bushfire catastrophe far exceeds the damages seen in other countries by many orders of magnitude

By the end of the century, if all countries meet their Paris Agreement targets, average global temperatures are predicted to rise by 3°C; under a business-as-usual scenario, this rises to 5°C. These bushfires should be seen as an omen for the future- not just for Australia and those countries affected, but for the entire world. 

For someone who is not directly affected by the fires, it can be difficult to comprehend the scale of destruction. Donations can be made to:

Featured image by: Flickr

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